Thursday, July 29, 2010

science and technology..

..Science and Technology..

India has a long and distinguished tradition in science and technology, from the ancient times to great achievements during this century; the latter half prior to independence has been related largely to pure research. At the time of independence, our scientific and technological infrastructure was neither strong nor organised as compared to the developed world. This had resulted in our being technologically dependent on the skills and expertise available with other countries. In the past four decades, infrastructure and capability largely corresponds with meeting national needs, and has created minimal dependence on other countries. A range of industries from small to the most sophisticated has been established covering a wide range of utilities, services and goods. There is now a reservoir of expertise well acquainted with the most modern advances in basic and applied areas that is equipped to make choices between available technologies, to absorb readily new technologies and provide a framework for future national development.

History Of Science And Technology

Science and Technology has been around from the beginning of time. It evolved from the everyday efforts of people trying to improve their way of life. Throughout history, humankind has developed and utilized tools, machines, and techniques without understanding how or why they worked or comprehending their physical or chemical composition. Before we go any further a definition has to be given for both Science and Technology because they are both different in their own right even though the two are almost indistinguishable. According to the Oxford Dictionary Technology can be defined as the knowledge or use of the mechanical arts and applied sciences, while Science can be defined as the branch of knowledge involving systematized observation and experiment. Science can be further divided into three separate categories; Pure, Applied and Natural Sciences. In addition technology is often defined as applied science, it is simply the application of scientific knowledge to achieve a specific human purpose, however, historical evidence suggests technology is a product of science. Today there are many technological advancement to enhance our daily activities, whether it be as simple as an Ipod for entertainment purposes or as vital as an artificial heart for the survival of a human live, science and technology is the reason for its existence. Science and Technology can be traced from the origin of human life 2 million years ago and each era has significant advancement. The earliest known form of S&T were human artefacts found during prehistoric time about 2.3 million years ago, they were roughly shaped stones used for chopping and scraping, found primarily in eastern Africa. Some of the earliest record of science came from Mesopotamian cultures around 400 BC, disease symptoms, chemical substances and astronomical observations were some of the evidence of emerging science...

The Benefits Of Science And Technology :

Man, powered by his imagination and inquisitive character, has wondered he mechanisms of Nature since time infinite. This quest for the truth, the ways in which his surrounding works, has led to many a scientific discoveries and innovations. Since the art of making fire and creating handcrafted tools, our civilization has come a long way. Science and Technology are making advances at an amazing rate. From telephones to the Internet, calculators to computers, cars to rockets and satellites, we are submerged in a sea of discoveries and inventions made possible by Science. Fields like Medicine and communications have made inroads into our cultures and thus our lifestyles. So vast is the impact of Science in our lives, that people fear the unthinkable. It leads them to accusations such as Science tries to play God. However, according to Hume, God is part of the order that exists in the universe. If so, then Science is just helping us discover the Almighty, which most people perceive as the Ultimate Truth. To quote Charles Pierce, ""There is one thing even more vital to science than intelligent methods; and that is, the sincere desire to find out the truth, whatever it may be." Repeatedly, it is also heard that we are so dependent on Science and Technology that we who create it are nothing but mere puppets. How can we be the slaves of this great resource? In fact, it would not be wrong to term Science as a friend of Humanity. This faithful friend has come through many a times. We have reaped innumerable benefits out of this friendship. In return, the sacrifices we had to make constituted just a small price in return. This price can be termed as a small token of appreciation for our friend, Science. According to an existential argument, existence precedes essence. If so, then human existence is absurd and unjustified. The goal of a human being then is to justify his existence. We humans tried to take charge of our own lives by choosing to justify its cause....

To What Extent Have Science And Technology Solve The Problems Of The Poor ?

As science and technology advances with time, it has brought many benefits to mankind especially those those who are financially challenged. Science and technology has helped man created a higher standard of living and jobs among its other benefits. It has to a large extent solve the main concerns of the impoverished, problems such as health problems uch as polio, food and unemployment. There are others who claim that oppose such a view as they claim that science and technology has exacerbated the problems of the poor by widening the economic gap of the rich and the poor.For exaple, the financially challenged are bereft of commodities such as the internet.This puts them at a disposition as they will not be able to acquire the knowledge and skills disposable to those who have them. Hence they would not be able to compete on equal grounds with others for job oppotunities. However science and technology has helped man establish global communication. With the establishment of global communication, countries would be able to undergo globalisation. New jobs would be created with the aid of foreign investment and in the communication sector. This helps decrease the unemployment rate and account for the concern of unemployment of the poor. Another argument brought forth by opponents is that science and technology has brought about the drgradation of our environment. This has adverse effects upon the poor as they are heavily reliant on the environment for their daily survival such as fishing. However science and technology has a modern infrastructure whereby sanitary systems and proper irrigtion systems have convenient the lives of the poor. Water purication systems have improved the standard of living of the poor and methods such as aeroponics offer the hope to the agricultural problems face by the poor. Furthermore, advances into the field of genetic engineering and life sciences offer the solution to fmine, low rop yield and even mortality rates..

He Impact Of Today's Technology On Banking :

I am greatly honored to be here as Chairman of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. I’d like to begin by thanking the Swiss National Bank, Kurt Hauri and the Swiss Federal Banking Commission, and Andrew Crockett and the BIS for organizing and hosting this important conference. They’ve done a wonderful job, for which I know we’re all very grateful. It is also a great pleasure to be with you under such dramatically different circumstances than when we last gathered together. Just two years ago, turbulence in the financial markets around the world had affected, in one way or another, the banking systems of virtually every nation, and bank supervisors were struggling to preserve confidence and stability. Today, of course, the global financial situation is much more stable and the outlook is very favorable. In the United States, we continue to enjoy the longest economic expansion in our nation’s history, and, following passage of financial modernization legislation, banks and other financial institutions now enjoy unprecedented strategic opportunities. In Europe, following monetary union in January of 1999, the banking industry, along with other corporate sectors, is becoming more efficient and competitive as economic and political reforms have sharpened the focus on shareholder value. In Asia, and in many emerging market economies, meaningful headway has been made toward recapitalizing banking systems, ridding banks’ balance sheets of problem assets, and improving supervisory and regulatory frameworks. As a result, economies are growing again, equity markets have rebounded, and foreign capital has begun to return. What a difference two years of hard work can make..

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